Important ancient handicraft, “Bo Suak kiln”

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Important ancient handicraft, “Bo Suak kiln”

Nan city has one of important ancient handicraft which is produce pottery at "Ban Tao Hai Chae Liang" witch now called “Bo Suak kiln” archaeological site. "Ban Hai Chae Liang" appears in several Nan historical documents, such as Nan chronicle; Wat Phra Kerd version. Referring to the throne seizure between Tao Phaeng and Phaya Inta Kaen Thao. Phaya Inta Kaen Thao, who was the ruler of Nan at the time, was taken the throne by Tao Phaeng, his younger brother. Then he escaped to Ayutthaya through village called "Baan Tao Hai Chae Liang"(1)

 
Between 1999 to 2005, Sayan Prishanjit, Teacher of the Faculty of Archaeology, Silpakorn University, has been conducted archaeological excavations of the Bo Suak kiln site continuously and acknowledge production process of this klin site.2

 
Kiln structure and age

Ban Bo Suak kiln is Lanna kiln style. Inside is a large firing chamber where a person can enter. The kilns are sloped and possess a chimney on the top, building a wall with clay, cooling by ventilate from kiln door to chimney. The lower structure buried into the mound. Cast arch (Roof) flue and chimney appear on the surface. Moreover, Bo Suak kiln structure resemble to Si Satchanalai kiln during the 20th century, conform with the scientific age measurement from Sergeant Manat and Sunan kiln (the site within the area of the residence of Police Sergeant Major Manat and Khun Sunan Tikham.). Sunan kiln was from the late 18th to mid-20th Buddhist century, while Sergeant Manat kiln was from the late 20th to late 21st century. This leads us to the assumption that throughout the Phuka dynasty reign, Nan was produced pottery at Tao Hai Chae Liang Village from the late 18th to the late 21st Buddhist century.



Product

During the 19th – 20th Buddhist centuries, Tao Hai Chae Liang Village produced plate, bowl, jars, both glazed and unglazed ceramics.

Unglazed jars, (preserved food and pickles) single-rim jars decorated by wave of water scratch and parallel lines next down, 4 ears (handles) are molded and next down to the base without any pattern. Sayan Prishanjit assumed that the pattern simulated to Buddhist cosmology. The pattern of water waves refers to the ocean, while parallel lines refer to continents. The 4 ears (handles) refer to the four continents of Buddhist chronical.

Double-rim jar has a more detailed and meaningful meaning than a single-rim jar, the outer rimmed represents the continent or the land. The inner rimmed is the core of Sumeru Mountain (Centre of the universe), which is usually used to contain ashes.

Interpretation of terracotta container patterns, single-layer jar-soaked jars during the 19th – 21st Buddhist centuries.

Source: Sayan Praicharnjit, Pottery Kiln Archaeology in Siam Lanna and Suphanburi (Bangkok: Silpakorn Creative Economic Development Arts Project, Silpakorn University, 2011), 94.

Double-rim jar of Chae Liang kiln (Bo Suak kiln) decorated with the pattern of water waves.

Source: Sayan Praicharnjit, Pottery Kiln Archaeology in Siam Lanna and Suphanburi (Bangkok: Silpakorn Creative Economic Development Arts Project, Silpakorn University, 2011), 74.

Interpretation of jar patterns, double-rim jar during the 19th - 21st Buddhist century.

Source: Sayan Praicharnjit, Pottery Kiln Archaeology in Siam Lanna and Suphanburi (Bangkok: Silpakorn Creative Economic Development Arts Project, Silpakorn University, 2011), 95.

 

Jars decorated with mixed pattern are mainly on flaring rim jars or double-rim jars. By pressing the stamp (cross shape, rhombus shape, wavy shape etc.,) to design connected line and stripes. And there is a thin stripe between each line, and molded rim with circular clay around or ears in the top area.

Decoration of Bo Suak pottery during the 19th -21st Buddhist century.

Source: Sayan Praicharnjit, Pottery Kiln Archaeology in Siam Lanna and Suphanburi (Bangkok: Silpakorn Creative Economic Development Arts Project, Silpakorn University, 2011), 72.

 

 

The first glazed ware is a strong pottery and mostly are plate, bowls, and jars. Most of them are green crack-glazed and not so neat.

Green glazed wares of Bo Suak during the 19th -21st Buddhist century.

Source: Sayan Praicharnjit, Pottery Kiln Archaeology in Siam Lanna and Suphanburi (Bangkok: Silpakorn Creative Economic Development Project, Silpakorn University, 2011), 88 and 90.

 

The 3rd period, the late 20th – 22nd Buddhist century, Nan conquered by Lanna kingdom in the reign of king Tilokaraj, year 1450 In the reign of Thao Inthakaen Ruler of Nan, in the Buddhist era. Nan art was fully influenced by Lanna art in both architecture and sculpture. Sukhothai and Lanna art influenced to many Nan sculptures, combine with local art also a minor from Ayudhaya. Some architecture was influenced by Lao art. The handicrafts were considered as the golden age of baan Tao Hai Chae Liang (Bo Suak) with the development of production techniques and wider range of products then Lanna skingdom was annexed as part of the Kingdom of Burma during the reign of Phaya Luang Phol Thep Luechai Chao, who ruled Nan around 1558.

 

Craftmanship

Pottery production has invented new firing techniques, using clay box or “Joar” (castellated prop) to protect direct heat in firing process and organized pottery in the kiln. It is a remarkable archaeological evidence of Thai pottery archaeology there has not yet been found any stove source in Thailand that uses this technique, a technique that helps regulate product standards and production volumes. With this technique Bo Suak developed many kinds of pottery products, including plates, jars, dolls etc. The glazed product also has been developed such as soft white glazed and soft green glazed etc. The most prominent product of the Bo Suak kiln in the 21st - 22nd Buddhist century was the strong green-glazed jars. Decorated by the "Nan Bird Pattern", which is represent the most Nan’s identity design. It is framed with lotus petals or shoulder strap pattern and owl pattern on inside.

A strong, soft green coating that adorns with "Nan Bird Pattern".

Source: Sayan Praicharnjit, Warden Archaeology in Siam, Lanna kiln and Suphanburi (Bangkok: Silpakorn Creative Economic Development Arts Project, Silpakorn University, 2011), 115

 

Bibliography

Sarassawadee Ongsakul, Nan Native : Wat Phra Kerd Edition (Bangkok : Amarin Printing, 1996), 13.

Sayan Praicharnjit, Pottery Kiln Archaeology in Siam Lanna and Suphanburi (Bangkok: Silpakorn Creative Economic Development Arts Project, Silpakorn University, 2011), 41-95.

Sayan Praicharnjit, Pottery Kiln Archaeology in Siam Lanna and Suphanburi (Bangkok: Silpakorn University Creative Economic Development Project, Silpakorn University, 2011), 98-99, 109.

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